Biodiversity of fruit crops and utilization in food and nutritional security

March 29, 2024 | Sustainable Utilization and Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity |

Conducted by the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN) in Indonesia, this study delves into the vast biodiversity of fruits worldwide, encompassing a diverse array of species and genetic variations across different continents. With approximately 1,000 fruit species in America, 500 in Asia, 1,200 in Africa, and 300 in India, fruits demonstrate remarkable adaptability to various environmental conditions and cropping systems.

The demand for fruits has surged in recent years, fueled by increased awareness of their nutritional importance, particularly in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Shifting dietary patterns towards greater fruit and vegetable consumption further bolster this demand. Fruits are recognized for their low calorie and fat content, while being rich sources of sugars, fiber, and essential micronutrients crucial for human health.

This study focuses on eight key fruit species and their wild relatives, including durian, rambutan, mangosteen, dragon fruit, salacca, papaya, pineapple, and mango, highlighting their nutritional composition, phytochemical compounds, and medicinal potential. However, fruit biodiversity faces significant threats from habitat destruction, overexploitation, and climate change, leading to genetic erosion and potential extinction. The study emphasizes the urgent need for conservation and sustainable utilization efforts to safeguard fruit biodiversity for future generations.

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